, 2006). Many genomic traits are highly phylogenetically conserved, especially complex traits involving many genes such as photosynthesis and methanogenesis (Martiny et al., 2013). Conversely, simpler traits may display a distribution that is independent of the phylogenetic structure of the community, such as the vertical distribution of UV tolerance in the water column (Fig. 1; DeLong et al., 2006). Determining which microbial taxa live where, and how and why they assemble into functional communities, is integral to PR-171 order understanding and modeling causal relationships between
marine community structure, biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem service provision. The importance of this understanding is highlighted by both the large increase over recent years in papers relating to microbial biogeography in the scientific literature (Fig. 2), and the instigation of ‘regional’ [e.g. Indigo V expeditions
(http://indigovexpeditions.com/)] and ‘global’ [e.g. International Census of Marine Microbes (ICOMM, http://icomm.mbl.edu/), Global Ocean Sampling expedition (http://www.jcvi.org/cms/index.php?id=104) Tara Oceans (http://oceans.taraexpeditions.org/), Malaspina expedition (http://scientific.expedicionmalaspina.es/)] ocean sampling initiatives designed with the express purpose of elucidating the structure of microbial communities inhabiting different marine provinces. Today, advances
in marine sampling instrumentation (Shade et al., 2009 and Ottesen et al., 2013) and molecular methodologies are allowing for the qualitative and quantitative molecular LY2109761 characterization of microbial community structure (e.g. ssu ribosomal RNA gene tag sequencing), functional potential (e.g. single cell genomics, metagenomics) and activity PD184352 (CI-1040) (transcriptomics) from a larger numbers of samples than ever before. These data provide a genomic framework for examining microbial lifestyle traits in relation to environment (e.g. Lauro et al., 2009 and Gianoulis et al., 2009), and lay the foundation for the development of a molecular trait-based biogeography and ecology (Raes et al., 2011). By traits we refer to those characteristics of an organism or community that mediate fitness in reference to a given set of abiotic and biotic environmental parameters (summarized in Table 1). Trait-based microbial biogeography analysis enables the downstream utilization of modeling approaches centered around representations of trait diversity and trade-offs. (cf. Follows and Dutkiewicz (2011) and Barton et al. (2013) for discussion of marine phytoplankton and zooplankton trait based modeling and emergent biogeography). Here we review the biogeography of marine bacterioplankton clades both in a traditional ecological sense as well as how it relates to our knowledge of organismal traits.