, 2012), little is known about the responses of biota to climate change. The aim of this paper was to find possible changes in biota as a response to climate variability in the Lake Onega1 ecosystem, the second-largest lake in Europe. Our previous studies of large lakes in European Russia (Ladoga, Onega) showed that the phytoplankton and zoobenthos of shallow-water areas were the most sensitive communities
among the biota to climate change and pollution (Moiseenko and Sharov, 2011 and Sharov et al., 2012). Based on long-term monitoring data from Petrozavodsk Bay, in the western part of Lake Onega, we analyse relationships between climatic global indices and regional variables on the one hand, and the structural Ibrutinib research buy characteristics of the phytoplankton and benthos on the other. Situated in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin, Lake Onega is 9720 km2 in area, and has a water volume of 285 km3, a mean depth of 30 m and a maximum depth of 120 m. Petrozavodsk Bay is 72.6 km2 in area and has a mean depth of 15 m (Figure 1). This area is used for transport, PLX3397 clinical trial industrial and recreational activities by the population of the city of Petrozavodsk. Water from this area is collected for drinking and other human needs. In our attempt to understand current climate
variability, we used both global indices (North Atlantic Oscillation – NAO, Arctic Oscillation – AO) and regional characteristics, such as the duration of the ice-free period (ICE-FREE), air (AT) and water temperatures (WT), and the precipitation rate (P). The average annual climate indices like NAO and AO were obtained from the Internet site http://www.cgd.ucar.edu. Regional values of AT, ICE-FREE and P for the study area were obtained from observational data collected at the meteorological stations located in the Lake Onega
catchment area. Surface and bottom temperatures were measured and biological material was sampled during each field campaign. Biological data such as the chlorophyll a concentration in water (Chl a), the abundance (N) and biomass (B) of phytoplankton and zoobenthos Aurora Kinase (and their separate taxa) were taken from the Database of the Northern Water Problems Institute of the Karelian Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences (NWPI) (registration number 2012620882). The material used in this study was collected at three sites in Petrozavodsk Bay (N 61°47′, E 34°26′, Figure 1), a shallow-water area of Lake Onega, by staff from NWPI during cruises of r/v ‘Ecolog’ in summer (July, August) from 1999 to 2010. Samples were processed in the Laboratory of Hydrobiology using standardised methodology. Chl a was determined using a standard spectrophotometric method by measuring the absorbance (optical density) of the extract at various wavelengths.