(2012), who performed parasitological dissections of Dreissena rostriformis bugensis from the Colorado River basin in California, USA. As suggested by Mastitsky & Gagarin (2004), oxygenation of the water due to the filtration activity of zebra mussels may attract such oxyphilic nematodes to Dreissena clumps, and
then the worms may be accidentally sucked into the mantle cavity through the mollusc’s inhalant siphon. The levels of nematode infection observed in our samples of zebra mussel are consistent with a number of studies performed in freshwater water bodies (e.g. Molloy et al., 1997, selleck screening library Karatayev et al., 2000b, Karatayev et al., 2003, Mastitsky and Gagarin, 2004 and Mastitsky et al., 2008). In summary, our work extends the currently scarce records of D. polymorpha parasites and commensals from brackish waters, thus adding to a better understanding of the ecological impacts this highly invasive mollusc has in the areas it has invaded. We found three types of endosymbionts in D. polymorpha from the Curonian Lagoon. The commensal ciliate C. acuminatus and the parasitic ciliate Ophryoglena sp. are considered to be highly host-specific endosymbionts of D. polymorpha ( Karatayev et al. 2007, Dr. Daniel P. Molloy, personal communication). Epacadostat It is thus unlikely that these ciliates will switch to any new hosts in the Curonian Lagoon. The nematodes we found in a few zebra mussels were presumably
native species that penetrated
the mantle cavity of the molluscs inadvertently. Therefore, our data suggest that the introduction of D. polymorpha has not caused any adverse parasitological effects in the Curonian Lagoon, and that the mollusc does not pose any additional risks if cultured for remediation purposes with subsequent biomass utilization in husbandry. We would emphasize, however, that this conclusion should be treated with great caution as it is based on a study conducted at one single location only. The additional sampling of D. polymorpha population on a larger spatial scale in this water body would help verify our results. “
“The ongoing transformation of the Earth’s natural environment Ponatinib concentration world-wide is persuading researchers to intensify their studies and forecasts of the effects of these changes (e.g. Chen et al. (eds.) 2011), in which a highly significant part is being played by processes taking place in marine ecosystems (e.g. Barange et al. (eds.) 2010), in particular the photosynthesis of organic matter and the accompanying release of oxygen by phytoplankton (Odum 1971, Steemann-Nielsen 1975, Lieth & Whittaker 1975, Falkowski & Knoll (eds.) 2007). Marine photosynthesis is one of the main factors shaping the Earth’s climate (Glantz (ed.) 1988, Trenberth (ed.) 1992, Houghton 1997, Houghton 2005). These facts are sufficient to justify the constant monitoring of the state and productivity of marine ecosystems.