However, HR responses to deep breathing, active stand and the valsalva manoeuvre decline with age. Our use of Ewing’s normal values, rather than determining age-specific normal values from testing age-matched controls, may have resulted in false negative test results in younger patients and also means that we cannot isolate the effect of a diagnosis of advanced cancer from the effect of normal aging on AD. Despite this, 54.8% of those aged less than 58 years were classified
as having definite/severe AD. Unlike previous studies, we did not exclude patients who had other medical conditions known to be associated with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical AD or those taking medications which may affect autonomic reflexes. However, we found that in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical context of advanced cancer, these conditions do not significantly increase the risk of AD. Autonomic dysfunction is common in patients with advanced cancer. The findings of Bruera et al suggest that AD may be associated with symptoms of postural hypotension and unexplained nausea .
In view of the high prevalence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in this study, we recommend routine enquiry for symptoms suggestive of OH and measurement of lying and standing BP in patients with advanced cancer. Management of OH Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical includes discontinuation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of antihypertensive medication, adoption of physical counter- manoeuvres, and use of mineralocorticoid (e.g. fludrocortisone) and/or adrenergic agonist (e.g. midodrine) medications . For patients with unexplained symptoms suspected to be due to AD involving other systems, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical targeted investigation, such as gastric emptying studies in patients with chronic unexplained nausea, should be considered . In this study, patients with definite or severe AD had higher scores for selleck severity of tiredness, as measured by the ESAS. Fatigue has been shown to be associated with AD in patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
[26,27]. Impaired autonomic function has also been described in patients with crotamiton Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) [28,29] and patients with vasovagal syncope (VVS) have been shown to have higher levels of fatigue than age-matched controls . A postulated explanation for these associations is that fatigue occurs as a result of impaired organ perfusion related to hypotension . Alternative explanations, in the case of CFS, are that AD develops as a result of reduced physical activity, or that both the fatigue and AD have a common aetiology. However, early studies in patients with CFS and VVS suggest that severity of fatigue may improve with treatment of AD related postural hypotension.