35 These findings strongly support the view that TS is related to a basal ganglia dysfunction, although several other brain regions are involved in the pathophysiology of tics as check details hypothesized by the concept of Kurlan and shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).36 Interestingly, neuroimaging data in TS also show significantly increased white matter lesions Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, a finding that will be discussed in the context of the inflammatory hypothesis of TS.37 Genetics of TS There is evidence
for a strong genetic background of TS. It has been demonstrated in twin studies that monozygotic twins are more often concordant for the presence of TS in up to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 53% or any tics in up to 77% compared with dizygotic twins (up to 8% concordant for TS and 23% for any tics).13,14 While it is evident that genetic factors play a profound role, the phenotype may be variable and may not be confined to full-blown TS. The risk for TS is sex-dependent: 11.5% for brothers of an affected person and 4.8% for sisters.38 The frequency of TS in first-degree relatives ranges from 9.8% to 15%,
according to the study cited.39,40 A particular risk gene for TS, however, has not yet been identified. Although large Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical linkage studies have been performed, a genome-wide screen for linkage using 386 markers did not show a limit of detection (LOD) score of more than two,41 nor did a genome -wide screen based on 110 sib pairs, show significant loci.42 A sample from a French-Canadian family (127 members, 20 to 40 affected) showed a LOD score greater than three on Hq23.43 However, the incomplete genetic penetrance, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the high variability of the phenotype (symptoms), possible different etiological factors, and several other Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical concomitant factors complicate genetic studies in TS. TS as en inflammatory disease Recent studies suggest that an inflammatory process, due to an acute or chronic infection or a postinfectious immune response, may be involved in the pathogenesis of TS.44
Although the pathological mechanism in TS is unclear, contribution of an immunological else dysfunction or an inflammatory process has been discussed. With regard to research on immune function in TS, most studies have focused on antibody production. Increased antibody production including antiphospholipid45 and antineural antibodies directed against structures in the basal ganglia46-50 has been described. Recent research, however, showed conflicting results regarding increased antineural antibodies in the serum of TS.51-53 D8/17, a surface marker on antibodies producing B -lymphocytes, has been described to be a diagnostic marker in OCD and in tics,54 but this has not been confirmed.