3B), which are possible because the model for total parasite biomass assumes that blood is sampled at a random time point of the erythrocytic cycle of parasite development,22 but in reality subjects might present at any time from just after schizogony (when peripheral parasitaemia will be highest) to just before schizogony when peripheral parasitaemia will be lowest. However, comparison of median sequestered-parasite biomass estimates between groups is less affected by RGFP966 the imprecision of
estimates for individuals, and sequestered biomass estimates were not significantly different between children with UM and SM (Table 2 and Fig. 3B). This surprising finding prompted us to explore sequestered biomass in subgroups of patients with SM. A large proportion (56 of 127, 44.1%) of SM cases had SP alone, which is associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality than the other indicators of severity,2 so we reanalyzed the data for subjects VE-822 cost with SM excluding those with SP. The median sequestered-parasite biomass in the 71 children with the most severe manifestations of malaria (i.e. CM, SA, LA or any combination of
these, collectively termed severe non-prostrated (SNP)) remained not significantly different to that of the UM cases (Table 2, Fig. 3B). To explore whether sequestered biomass was associated with any of the overlapping manifestations of SM, we compared the median sequestered-parasite biomass in children with UM with that in children with each inclusively defined SM syndrome (Table 2). Sequestered biomass in children with LA, Nintedanib manufacturer the largest subgroup (n = 64), was not significantly different to those with UM. In contrast children with CM, SA, and non-survivors, had very high-sequestered biomass, but these subgroups were relatively small, and only in SA cases was the median sequestered biomass significantly higher than that in UM ( Table 2, Fig. 3B). We also compared sequestered biomass in exclusively defined SM manifestations with that in children with UM, but the small sizes of the subgroups only allowed us to confirm that median sequestered
biomass was similar in UM and LA ( Table 2, Fig. 3B). Reanalysis using a less stringent definition of LA (>4 mmol/L, as used by Dondorp et al. 22), increased the numbers of children classified as having SM, SNP, and LA to 142, 103 and 100 respectively, but did not change the significance of the comparisons between the different categories ( Table 3). Blood lactate concentration is strongly associated with mortality in P. falciparum malaria, 14, 15 and 22 but did not significantly correlate with sequestered-parasite biomass (Spearman r = 0.0315, P = 0.59), whereas lactate correlated equally well with circulating and total parasite biomass estimates (Spearman r = 0.50 (95% CI 0.40–0.58) and 0.44 (95% CI 0.34–0.53) respectively, both P < 0.001).