, 2005). The validity of lipid and other tissue component adjustments have not been established for certain short-lived chemicals such as current use pesticides. In these instances, the whole-volume concentrations and adjusted concentrations should be reported with a notation that adjustment validity has not been established. In addition, plasma volume increases in pregnancy (and may also increase for some pre-existing diseases or underlying health conditions) PD173074 purchase and may also
need to be considered when comparing plasma concentrations across pregnancy or populations (Hytten, 1985). Information about the sample collection requirements and matrix treatment is important when comparing data across studies or to reference ranges. Studies by different governmental agencies (e.g., the European Union, specific European countries, US NHANES, Canadian Health Measures Survey, Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale, state-based HANES) and other large biomonitoring data repositories may have different protocols for collecting and processing samples that can alter the matrix and reported biomarker concentrations. For example, instructions given to the participant CT99021 supplier about fasting prior to sample collection can minimize
the lipid content in blood thus minimizing a lipophilic biomarker concentration in a sample (Barr et al., 2005a), and these instructions are not necessarily the same from country to country (LaKind et al., 2012a). Similarly, a first morning urine void may be more concentrated in matrix components than a simple spot sample which may alter our ability to detect or differentiate an analyte (Kissel et al., 2005 and Scher et al., 2007). Further, first morning void collection can result in a bias (systematic error) in the data due to the relationship between previous exposure and sample collection and measurement; this is especially important for chemicals for which diet is a predominant route of exposure as the void would be collected after overnight fasting. Blood plasma collected with EDTA versus heparin as an anticoagulant may alter the properties of the matrix
(Barr et al., 2005a). Differences in collection requirements and sample processing (as well as health conditions of study participants – such this website as kidney disease – that could affect biomarker concentrations) need to be reported, considered and weighed accordingly when results are compared across studies. We recognize that the best practice for matrix adjustment is intimately associated with the hypothesis to be tested and the specific chemical of interest, and that consensus in this area has not yet been reached. However, adjustment can have a significant effect on study outcome. We therefore propose that a Tier 1 study would provide results for adjusted and non-adjusted concentrations (if adjustment is needed), thereby allowing the reader to reach their own conclusions about the impact of matrix adjustment.