7 mM acetate. This substrate limitation for current density explicates why MXCs cannot generate high current density from domestic wastewater, although the wastewater would be completely available for ARB, like acetate. Literature commonly reported low current density in a range of 0.18–2.4 A/m2 in MXCs fed with domestic wastewater ,  and . At Run 2, the decrease of bicarbonate buffer from 50 to 5 mM reduced current density down to 0.9 ± 0.1 A/m2 (25% reduction, based on 1.2 ± 0.25 A/m2 at Run 1), which indicates
partial acidification of anode biofilm due to proton accumulation, as expected  and . However, this current reduction is relatively small as compared to literature. Torres NVP-BEZ235 nmr et al.  reported more than 60% current reduction from ∼6 A/m2 to 2 A/m2 when phosphate buffer decreased from 50 mM to 12.5 mM. This result implies that alkalinity effect on current density would be small for the MXCs treating domestic wastewater, since low substrate concentration or other limiting factor already limits ARB catabolism and current density. At Run 3 (filtered domestic wastewater) current density substantially decreased down to 0.30 ± 0.1 A/m2, as compared to 0.9 ± 0.1 A/m2 at Run 2 (67% reduction). The alkalinity in the domestic wastewater was 250 ± 50 mg/L as CaCO3 which Cabozantinib is equivalent to the buffer concentration
of 5 ± 1 mM as HCO3− in acetate medium for Run 2. Therefore, the considerable reduction of current density at Run Methocarbamol 3 clearly indicates that organic compounds in the wastewater are not readily available for ARB. Low current density was kept at Run 4 where filtrated domestic wastewater was supplemented with high bicarbonate buffer 50 mM. This consistent, low current density confirms that the biodegradability of domestic wastewater for ARB is one of the key factors responsible for low current density in MXCs, not the buffer concentration. Acclimation of
ARB with acetate medium for over 3 months would shift complex microbial community structures mainly to acetate-utilizing ARB, as shown in the literature  and . Furthermore, the microbial community structure analysis for the MXC acclimated under similar operating conditions in our previous study also supports that the biofilm anode would primarily consist of acetate-utilizing ARB with small numbers of non-ARB (e.g., fermenters, methanogens, homoacetaogens) . When complex forms of organic compounds in domestic wastewater are exposed to the ARB, their substrate-utilization rate can be significantly limited. Trivial acetate present in domestic wastewater (not detected in our study) or generated from fermentation of complex organics via small numbers of non-ARB (due to filtration) would be used by ARB for current generation in MXCs.