10 and 11 Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates are potent antiresorptive drugs that are widely employed for prevention and treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone and metastatic bone cancer.12 They are also used in therapy of several paediatric and juvenile bone disorders.13, 14 and 15 The administration of sodium alendronate to young rats occasioned the inhibition of tooth eruption and impaired the root formation of molars due to ankylosis at the cervical portion of the tooth germ.16 More recently, the inhibition of tooth
eruption and Selleck Ibrutinib root formation in zoledronic acid-treated rats has been also reported.17 The ankylosis between the alveolar bone and the tooth germ observed in the studies above occasions the disruption of the dental follicle and the enamel epithelia, which are crucial structures during tooth eruption and periodontium development.1 and 11 Since the interactions between HERS and ectomesenchymal cells during the dental root development and tooth eruption are still not completely understood, the impairment of this process by alendronate treatment offers an interesting model to verify how such interactions
occur when several structures are affected by the drug. We used an experimental model in which sodium alendronate AZD6244 concentration was daily administered to newborn rats from the day of birth until 30 days old.16 and 18 The aim of the present study was to analyze the structures
affected in the impairment of root D-malate dehydrogenase formation and periodontal development by alendronate. The immunolabelling of Smad-4 was employed to verify which structures respond to BMP/TGF-β signalling during these processes and whether the impairment of root and periodontium formation is related to the inhibition of this pathway. Additionally, the detection of apoptotic cells in the treated specimens was performed and the fine structure of developing root and periodontium was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Principles of laboratory animal care (NIH publication 85-23, 1985) and national laws on animal use were observed for the present study, which was authorized by the Ethical Committee for Animal Research of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Forty-eight newborn Wistar rats were used in this study. Twenty-four rats were subjected to daily subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg/day sodium alendronate16, 18 and 19 since the day of birth to 9, 12 and 30 days old; additional 24 rats were daily injected with sterile saline solution during the same periods as controls. All the alendronate-treated rats were not weaned during the entire study in order to have their nutrition provided maternally.