As far as we are concerned, there is no study in the literature comparing EDTA, citric acid, and phosphoric acid at the same concentrations as those used in the present study. The lowest time period used here was 30 seconds, which has been suggested by the manufacturer as being the ideal time for optimal action
of phosphoric this website acid. However, EDTA resulted in lower performance comparable to the ones obtained with the control, which means that this solution was not able to remove the smear layer in 30 seconds. This finding is in accordance with other studies assessing the use of EDTA for 1 minute, showing that it did not work well in this period of time (23). On the other hand, 37% phosphoric acid solution and 10% citric acid were more effective than 17% EDTA in removing the smear layer in all thirds. The use of phosphoric acid solution for
1 minute was more effective than citric acid, EDTA, and phosphoric acid Obeticholic Acid chemical structure gel in the middle and apical thirds. In the cervical third, phosphoric acid solution and gel were more effective than citric acid and EDTA. Khedmati and Shohouhinejad (24) evaluated smear layer removal using 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid and found that these solutions were equally efficient and more effective in the cervical and middle thirds than in the apical third. These data are partially in agreement with the present study, which found that EDTA and citric acid were equally efficient, but in the present Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin study the EDTA was more effective in the cervical third than in the middle and apical thirds. At 3 minutes, phosphoric acid solution was the most effective chemical used in the apical third, followed by citric acid and EDTA, and finally by phosphoric acid gel. In the middle and cervical thirds, no significant differences among the substances were observed. An interesting finding was that phosphoric acid solution was
very effective in removing the smear layer of the apical third at 1 and 3 minutes compared with EDTA and citric acid. Also, dentinal erosion was not found in the apical third when phosphoric acid solution was used. Di Lenarda et al (20), using 15% EDTA and 19% citric acid to remove the smear layer, have shown that citric acid was better than EDTA in the apical third when used for 3 minutes. The differences from our findings may be caused by the different concentrations of citric acid and EDTA used. Our findings are in accordance with Pérez-Heredia et al (17), who used 15% EDTA and 15% citric acid and found better results for cervical and middle thirds compared with apical third. Regarding the dentinal erosion, in our study, the use of 37% phosphoric acid showed that dentin erosion was related to the exposure time. At 30 seconds, it was noted only in the cervical third.