Effects were throughout statistically very highly significant and of very large effect sizes for all motivations subscales (CC: ω2=0.45; SC: ω2=0.48; MI: ω2=0.44; total: ω2=0.52; these are the values averaged
over post and follow up test). Note that the largest effect was found for self-concept, a motivation component where NSP can be theoretically expected to be particularly helpful. These findings support hypotheses 1 and 3. Achievement: learning in the treatment group was considerably enhanced when compared to the control group. Effects are statistically at least very significant, and effect sizes generally large (total: ω2=0.20). Thus, CAL-101 chemical structure NSP lead to improved selleckchem learning with an effect size of considerable practical importance. This holds in particular also for more demanding items, assessing (among other) students׳ transfer abilities. These findings support hypotheses 2 and 4. Time
course of motivation/temporal stability of effects (repeated measures; see Fig. 2): In the treatment group, motivation increased most significantly (compared to initial state) and lasted for several months, whereas the motivation in the control group decreased after treatment and stayed low for the following months. This different Wilson disease protein temporal development of motivation in TG compared to CG was most significant and of very large effect size (CC: ω2=0.40; SC: ω2=0.34; IM: ω2=0.33; total: ω2=0.39). Thus, the narrative contexts of NSP lead to an improved motivation when compared to the initial state, showing (at least) medium-term stability. These results answer the research question 6 (where no hypothesis was
made) in the positive sense. Influences of prior knowledge in physics, non-verbal intelligence, reading comprehension, gender and school-type: while prior knowledge had a significant (positive) influence on the achievement and motivation (as expected), there was no interaction with treatment group. Thus, the NSP approach does not privilege students with higher prior knowledge more than traditional instruction. No influences of non-verbal intelligence and reading comprehension were found on any component of motivation nor on achievement (both in total or for any of its sub-items), and the same holds true for gender main effects or interaction with group membership.