Expression of AR was significantly associated with increasing age > 50 years (P = .040), low or intermediate grade (I and II) tumors (P = .001), expression of ER (P = .002), PR (P = .001), and therapeutic modalities
including endocrine (P = .004) and chemotherapy (P = .015). There were no significant differences observed between AR expression and tumor size, lymph node involvement, HER2 status, tumor type, radiation therapy, and expression of pAkt and pPTEN ( Table 2). Survival analysis Smad inhibitor was performed on 82 patients who had been followed for five or more years. A total of 16 deaths were reported during this period. The mean OS time was 9.2 ± 0.41 years, and lost to follow-up was 17% (n = 14) only. Women with AR-expressing or positive tumors had significantly higher OS (mean OS = 10.2 ± 0.465 years) than women whose tumors did not express AR (mean OS = 5.8 ± 0.348 years) (P = .042; Figure 2A). Lymph node involvement showed a significant (P = .043) association
with lower OS. Patients with large tumor size (P = .069) and positive pAkt status (P = .243) tended to also have decreased OS ( Table 3). To compare the potential prognostic value of AR and ER coexpression on survival, patients were GSK-3 inhibitor review categorized into the following four groups: 1) AR+/ER+ (n = 19), 2) AR+/ER− (n = 16), 3) AR−/ER+ (n = 10), and 4) AR−/ER− (n = 37). Although survival analyses showed no significant OS difference among the four groups Carbachol (P = .214), women with AR+/ER+ tumors showed a trend for a better OS (mean OS = 5.0 ± 0.257 years) compared to the AR−/ER+ (mean OS = 4.4 ± 0.573 years)
subgroup. We also found a survival advantage of AR expression in the AR+/ER− group with only 12.5% deaths (2 of 16), compared to 27% (10 of 37) deaths in patients with AR−/ER− tumors (P = .214; Figure 2B). The association of AR expression with OS in the subgroup of patients receiving endocrine therapy was investigated (n = 26). In this subgroup, patients with AR-positive tumor showed significantly better OS compared to patients whose tumors did not express AR (P = .020; Figure 2C). To compare the potential prognostic impact of AR and pPTEN coexpression on survival, patients were categorized into the following four groups: 1) AR+/pPTEN+ (n = 14), 2) AR+/pPTEN− (n = 20), 3) AR−/pPTEN+ (n = 22), and 4) AR−/pPTEN− (n = 16). Although survival analyses showed that there was no significant OS difference among the four groups (P = .289), women with AR+/pPTEN+ tumors had better survival with only 7.1% deaths (1 of 14), compared to 32% deaths (5 of 16) in the AR−/pPTEN− group of patients with BCa. We also found a survival benefit of AR expression in the AR+/pPTEN− group with only 10% deaths (2 of 20), compared to 22.7% deaths in the group of patients with AR−/pPTEN + tumors (5 of 22) (P = .289; Figure 2D).