reported that a new galactosaminogalactan and the galactomannan were the major polysaccharides of the in vivo A. fumigatus EPS (Loussert et al., 2010). For A. niger, after germination upon a support, the new hyphae also produce an EPS (Villena & Gutierrez-Correa, 2007b). Singhal et al. (2011) recently reported that primary epithelial cells could support the growth of biofilms under flow conditions that were also associated with significant EPS production compared with biofilms formed under static condition (Singhal et al., 2011). The production of EPS has also been reported elsewhere, where it is shown to be produced on polystyrene and on CF bronchial PD0332991 ic50 epithelial cells (Seidler et al., 2008). This study also reported that biofilm cells attaching to epithelial cells exhibited decreased sensitivity to antifungal drugs. Whilst the precise role of the EPS
PR-171 clinical trial is not known, it is hypothesized that it plays a significant role in antifungal resistance by preventing diffusion. This is supported from data emerging from the C. albicans biofilm field, where it was demonstrated that EPS expression (specifically beta-glucans), encoded through fks1, sequesters antifungal agents and reduces susceptibility (Nett et al., 2010a). Figure 2 illustrates the presence of EPS within A. fumigatus biofilms. Antifungal resistance is a defining characteristic of fungal biofilms. In A. fumigatus, biofilms antifungal resistance has been reported (Beauvais et al., 2007; Mowat et al., 2007; Seidler et al., 2008; Fiori et al., 2011), which has been shown to be phase dependant (Mowat et al., 2008b). Here, three phases of biofilm growth (8, 12 and 24 h) were investigated to assess the effects of antifungal agents on different phases of biofilm. Clear differences in susceptibility were observed in each biofilm population, where younger biofilms (8 h) were significantly Selleck Cobimetinib more susceptible than intermediate (12 h) and
mature biofilms (24 h) (Mowat et al., 2008b). Our recent study, supports the concept that this phase resistance is correlated with efflux pump activity. This study reported that efflux activity increases with biofilm maturity, and that sensitivity to voriconazole could be improved through the use of a competitive inhibitor. Transcriptomic analysis showed that maximum activity associated with the early filamentous phase (12 h), and in defined clinical isolates, maximal expression of mdr4 correlated with the highest increase in resistance in 12 h biofilm populations. Conversely, expression of this gene was minimal at 24 h, suggesting phase dependant efflux activity (Rajendran et al., 2011). It was therefore speculated that efflux pump activity plays a contributory role to antifungal resistance. It is conceivable that A.