However, some descriptions imply that surges were caused not only by storms, but could also have been elicited by swell waves appearing on the sea surface as a result of an earthquake or a large meteorite fall. However, the determination of cause-effect relationships and relevant correlations is precluded for lack of numerical data and timing records. The study of the characteristics of
extreme storm surges and falls involves practical aspects and allows Enzalutamide to determine, among other things, warning and alarm levels, which are of importance for, e.g. flood and coastal protection services as well as those involved in the safety of shipping. This aim of this study was to explain the physical aspects of storm surges and falls in the sea level along the Polish coast, and to indicate the value of these aspects for the modelling and forecasting of storm surges. The analysis was performed for three characteristic storm surge events differing in the effects
of the baric factor on the maximum sea level rise or fall. The events selected occurred on 16–18 January 1955, 17–19 October 1967 and 13–14 January 1993. In this work we calculated the values of the static and dynamic deformation of the sea surface as the result of the passage of a baric low. For this purpose we used the following formulae (Lisowski 1961, Wiśniewski 1983, 1996, 1997, 2005, Wiśniewski & Wolski 2009): equation(1) ΔHs=Δpρ×g,where ΔHs [cm] – static increase in sea level at the centre of the low pressure
area, The calculations were performed for five ports (tide-gauge stations) on the Polish coast: BYL719 mouse Świnoujście, Kołobrzeg, Ustka, Władysławowo and Gdańsk. In addition, the following characteristics were determined for each storm surge: • (Pi) – the pressure at the centre of the depression [hPa], Sea level changes during each storm surge event were illustrated by graphs, and synoptic maps showing the passage of the low pressure systems involved were developed. In addition, the baric situation during each event was described, with reference to the course of the storm surge along the Polish coast. Data on the water level series and weather conditions were obtained from Hydrographic year-book for the Baltic Sea (1946–1960), The maritime hydrographic and meteorological bulletin (1961–1990), www.selleck.co.jp/products/Adriamycin.html The environmental conditions in the Polish zone of the southern Baltic Sea (1991–2001) the archives of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management ( IMGW 2009) and the Maritime Institute, as well as the logs kept by harbour masters. Table 2 contains data describing the features of the baric lows, observed sea levels, as well as static and dynamic deformations of the sea surface, calculated using formulae (1) and (2), in the vicinity of the ports listed above. The static surge is reliable for the southern Baltic for a stationary baric low centre.