In combination with an optimized background regimen, enfuvirtide demonstrated a persistent immunological and virological benefit, although the majority of patients failed to achieve and maintain undetectable HIV-1 RNA levels. Initiation learn more of
combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can reverse some of the immunological deficiencies associated with untreated HIV-1 infection, including failure of naïve T-cell homeostasis and skewing towards memory T cells [7–9], systemic immune activation, which is strongly predictive of disease outcome [10,11], increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 [12,13], and priming for activation-induced cell death (AICD), which is responsible for bystander T-cell depletion . However, several cohort studies demonstrated that patients who started late were less likely to experience restoration of normal peripheral CD4 TSA HDAC mouse T-cell levels [15–17], and patients with
low baseline CD4 cell counts (≤350 cells/μL) showed incomplete reconstitution of naïve and memory CD4 cell subsets, as recently demonstrated by Robbins et al.  in a substudy of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 384 trial. On the basis of these observations, it has been suggested that Benzatropine patients who initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) late in their course of infection and who are at risk of disease may have residual inflammation, suboptimal CD4 T-cell gains, skewed immunophenotypic profiles and persistent alterations in T-cell homeostasis and functions . To address this issue, we report for the first time a comprehensive 48-week immunological study in heavily
pretreated patients with low CD4 cell counts receiving enfuvirtide-based salvage therapy. Detailed assessments of immune cell subsets, their activation state and homeostasis, and cytokine and chemokine signatures were carried out to investigate the impact of salvage therapy on the mechanisms of T-cell immune reconstitution in responder patients with low CD4 T-cell counts. Patients were enrolled from 1 March 2005 to 30 December 2006 in the Infectious Disease Department, Archet Hospital (Nice, France). The study was reviewed and approved by the local Ethical Committee.