In human 3D liver cells CYP3A4 activities were induced 12- to 40-fold with rifampicin and CYP2C9 activities 2- to 6-fold with phenobarbital and rifampicin, whereas in human 2D hepatocytes the induction of CYP3A4 activities was only 6-fold and CYP2C9 activities could not be significantly induced. On the other hand, CYP1A1 activity could be induced in 2D human hepatocytes monolayers to a greater extent (12-fold) than in human 3D liver cells (2- to 4-fold) (Fig. 1C). Similarly to human 3D liver cultures, basal, inducible and inhibited
CYP3A1/2 and CYP1A1 activities were preserved in rat 3D liver cultures for up to 3 months (Supplementary Fig. 1B). The inducible rat CYP3A1/2 activities were very www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-203580.html high during the first 30 days in culture followed by a slow decline to levels similar to induced activities observed in short-term 2D hepatocytes monolayers cultures. The levels of induction of CYP1A1 activity in the presence of TCDD in rat 3D liver cells was similar to those observed with rat 2D hepatocytes (Supplementary Fig. 1B). Human and rat 3D liver cells were responsive to insulin treatment
as shown by synthesis of 14C -labeled glycogen from 14C-labeled glucose in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 2A). In addition, the combined activity of drug-uptake transporters such as organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1/1B3/2B1, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and organic anion transporter (OAT) 2/7 family AG-014699 order members located at the basolateral side of hepatocytes was studied by incubation of cells with 3H-labeled E3S as a substrate. Human 3D liver cells accumulated 3H-labeled E3S and this transport into the cells was inhibited by 75% in the presence of the specific transport inhibitors cyclosporine A, verapamil and MK571 (Fig. 2B). Because the 3D liver co-cultures contain Kupffer cells and HSC, we investigated whether they secrete pro-inflammatory markers upon treatment with inflammatory stimuli. Treatment of human 3D liver cells with 10 μg/ml LPS for 24 h elicited increased
secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor Baf-A1 manufacturer necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), granulocytes macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-6 and IL-8 (Fig. 2C). Similarly, elevated levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-5 and KC/GRO (interleukin-8 related protein in rodents) were observed in rat 3D liver cultures (Supplementary Fig. 2). In addition, the inflammatory response of human 3D liver cultures upon treatment with LPS for 24 h was confirmed by the increased levels of the other inflammatory markers total nitrate/nitrite (Fig. 2C). The response of human 3D liver cells to LPS treatment (10 μg/ml for 24 h) was further examined using microarray analysis.