Spormann, unpublished data). When cells from these structures were isolated and used to seed surfaces in the flow chambers, initial characterization revealed that these cells are suppressor mutants that exclusively form pronounced three-dimensional biofilms that are morphologically distinct from wild-type biofilms (R.M. Saville & A.M. Spormann, unpublished data). These observations imply that S. oneidensis MR-1 may have, in addition to the mshA/pilDT and mxd systems, additional means for biofilm GDC-0449 cell line formation that are not expressed or observable in the wild type or under the standard conditions for biofilm growth used in our laboratory. Thus, the mshA/pilDT and mxd gene systems represent the dominant mechanisms for biofilm formation under the conditions tested. Biofilm formation in wild-type S. oneidensis MR-1 (AS93), as facilitated by the MSHA pili, results in the lateral coverage of a surface by only a few cell layers (Fig. 1). We cannot rule out that MSHA pili mediate biofilm formation throughout the entire thickness of a wild-type biofilm, but is only observable in this narrow region perhaps because of a decreased activity of the mxd gene system in the spatial
vicinity of the substratum surface. The MSHA-dependent association of cells to a biofilm appears to be transient as concluded from the d-mannose addition experiments, which can be rationalized in the following manner: type IV pili undergo constant extension and click here retraction, where individual pili at a cell pole act independent of each other (Skerker & Berg, 2001). Retraction is controlled by PilT (Wu et al., 1997; Burrows, 2005). When the tip of a pilus is transiently separated from the substratum, the substratum-binding sites on the tip will be unoccupied. Under such condition, external d-mannose can bind to the tip at high specificity and saturate the substratum-binding sites, thus preventing the reassociation
of the pilus with the substratum surface. This renders MSHA-dependent adhesion ineffective and results, over time, in the detachment of biofilm cells. While this d-mannose sensitivity is a valuable experimental tool that allowed us to distinguish between mshA/pilDT- and mxd-dependent attachments, we have no evidence that such an interference is of ecological significance Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK in situ. However, a controlled, transient association, facilitated by the MSHA pili, could serve as a valuable biological mechanism to bring S. oneidensis cells in sufficiently close contact with Fe(III)-oxide surfaces, thus enabling electron transfer, but also allowing severance of the association when the local reactive Fe(III) surface is consumed and reassociation with neighboring, unreacted surfaces. The lack of importance of PilA in biofilm formation by S. oneidensis MR-1 is interesting in light of the crucial role of PilT.