No potential conflicts of interest are disclosed. This work was supported by FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo). D.G.B was supported by a fellowship from FAPESP (2006/59835-0). The authors thank Dr. Ricardo Della Coletta (State University of Campinas – UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil) for providing the cell lines used in this study. “
“The authors would like to make an addition to the acknowledgments section and acknowledge the financial support of Action Medical Research. “
“Despite a huge number of published papers on inflammatory
processes during chronic neurodegeneration in the last 20 years, it remains unclear how inflammation contributes to progression of neurodegeneration (Wyss-Coray,
2006). We have used Selleckchem Panobinostat the ME7 model of murine prion disease to demonstrate Dasatinib ic50 that microglia, the major macrophage population of the brain, are primed by ongoing neurodegeneration and amyloidosis to produce exaggerated responses to systemic challenge with the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this context the term microglial priming, derived from the widely used term macrophage priming, signifies a markedly increased ability of microglia from ME7 animals to express interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in response to LPS when neither ME7 nor LPS alone are sufficient to effect IL-1β synthesis (Cunningham et al., 2005a). This further stimulation of primed microglia results in acute neuronal death Amobarbital and accelerated progression of disease (Cunningham et al., 2009). Based on those ME7 studies we have since shown that either acute or chronic systemic inflammation is associated with more rapid cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease patients (Holmes et al., 2003 and Holmes et al., 2009). Similarly it is well known that delirium, commonly triggered by systemic infection in the demented population, accelerates progression of AD (Fong et al., 2009). Thus, further studies of the mechanisms by which systemic inflammation exacerbates underlying CNS pathology may yield insights into the role of inflammation in progression
of chronic neurodegeneration in CNS disease. Exacerbation of chronic CNS pathology by systemic gram-negative bacterial stimulation is not specific to the ME7 model of prion disease: this been replicated in many animal models of chronic neurodegeneration including Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, AD and ageing (Sly et al., 2001, Nguyen et al., 2004, Godbout et al., 2005, Kitazawa et al., 2005 and Godoy et al., 2008). There is also evidence that infection with neurotropic viruses such as herpes simplex virus-1 and cytomegalovirus can exacerbate cognitive decline (Strandberg et al., 2003), but surprisingly, given their high frequency in the aged and demented population, systemic viral infections have been relatively overlooked.