Normal neutrophil levels vary according to age, race and other clinical factors. There is a long list of conditions that are associated with neutropenia (Tab. VII). It may be helpful to think of these problems as falling into two broad groups: intrinsic (heritable) disorders and diseases where the problem is due to extrinsic problems. The WBC and differential are commonly used to differentiate between bacterial and viral infections. However, careful studies have demonstrated limitations www.selleckchem.com/products/PF-2341066.html of this
data. For example, Todd reported that the sensitivity for detection of serious bacterial infection was only 32% for a WBC >17,000/μl, 32% for a PMN % >85%, 51% for PMN >10,000/μl, 36% for bands >9% and 60% for bands >500/μl . Even when combining PMN >10,000/μl and bands >500/μl the sensitivity
was still only 75%. McCarthy published similar findings using the WBC and the sedimentation rate (ESR) . Therefore, although very high values for any of these values strongly suggest bacterial infection, it is important to remember that most patients with serious bacterial infection have results that are less abnormal. Close examination of the peripheral smear may provide important additional evidence regarding the etiology of infection. In the presence of serious bacterial infection, PMN may contain toxic granulation (prominent dense granules), vacuoles and Dohle bodies (bluish areas of cytoplasm devoid of granules). The presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (nuclear remnants)
in RBC indicates asplenia or splenic hypofunction LY2109761 order with an increased risk of overwhelming bacteremia. Finally, organisms may be seen on the peripheral smear; the likelihood of positive results is increased when the smear is made from a buffy coat preparation. It is common to think of eosinophilia as being the result of allergies or infections. However, the differential mafosfamide diagnosis is much broader and includes: autoimmune diseases, toxins, malignancies hereditary conditions and other diseases (Tab. VIII) . An increased number and per cent of lymphocytes are normal findings in newborns after the first several days of life. An absolute lymphocytosis may also reflect bacterial (pertussis, parapertussis), viral (EBV, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus) or other (toxoplasmosis, syphilis) infections. A relative lymphocytosis is seen in patients with neutropenia or adrenal insufficiency. Atypical lymphocytes are T-cells that have been activated in response to specific antigens. They vary in size and shape whereas in acute lymphocytic leukemia, the abnormal cells tend to be more monotonous. The most common atypical lymphocyte (type 2) is characterized by membrane indentation from surrounding RBC and a thin rim of darker blue cytoplasm. Type 1 atypical lymphocytes look like plasma cells while type 3 cells look like monocytes (with bluish rather than gray cytoplasm).