Anticoagulants are one of the classes of medicines most frequently identified as causing preventable harm and admission to hospital. Managing the risk associated with anticoagulants can reduce the chance of patients being harmed in the future. As part of a
medicines management improvement programme we aimed to reduce the number of patients with an INR greater than 6 and thus avoidable harm. Plan Do Study Act (PDSA) cycles of change were used as part of the testing process to evaluate a range of improvements. This was part of a hospital wide patient safety programme where mortality has been significantly reduced. A similar approach was used in the Welsh 1000 lives campaign (2). A medicines management driver diagram was produced by a multidisciplinary taskforce to identify the key areas of avoidable risk. A number of interventions were carried out (new warfarin chart, root cause analysis(RCA) form, faxed Cabozantinib information to GPs, discharge checklists, daily INR > 4 patient follow up, GP and primary care pharmacist liaison, junior doctor project). Established methods of measuring and sampling Vincristine supplier for improvement work were used. The process measures included questionnaires, interviews, audits and incident report review. Outcome measures included the number of in-patients (INR > 6), as a percentage of the total
number of INRs measured and the reduction in harm using IHI trigger tool. Run charts were used to monitor progress. Patients on warfarin with
INR > 4 were followed up daily. We also looked in more detail at patients admitted with INR > 6 and shared our learning with GPs. Ethics approval was not required. All of Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase the interventions tried had some impact on the reduction in numbers of patients with an INR > 6. The percentage of patients with INR > 6 reduced overall from 6% to 1.6%. The root cause analysis forms were very effective in raising awareness of the causes of high INRs amongst the doctors. A Safety Bulletin was subsequently released with the learning from the RCAs in our Trust and surrounding GP practices. The amended warfarin chart ensured that key safety information was available at the point of prescribing. The discharge checklists appeared to be less well embedded when followed up and required more tailored support. The pro-active targeting of patients with a daily INR greater than 4 has been successful in identifying those patients at risk. Each month between 80 to100 patients were followed up daily by pharmacists who advised on dose changes, interacting medicines, and other risk factors. 50% of these have had their warfarin dose adjusted or a RCA carried out. 90% patients followed up did not go on to have an INR greater than 6. The adverse event rate reduced from 18.5 in 2010 to 1.6 in the last 6 months of 2013.