S. bushels) of wheat, corn, barely, and beans. Livestock in Alta California, often left uncontrolled, also increased rapidly as Spanish missionaries, soldiers, and secular settlers this website saw great potential in California’s grasslands for livestock range ( Burcham, 1961 and Burcham, 1981). By 1805, the region contained over 95,000 cattle, 21,000 horses, and 130,000 sheep ( Hackel, 1997:116), and by 1833 it is estimated that there were approximately 500,000 cattle in Alta California alone ( Peelo, 2009:596). As in Baja California, irrigation remained a cornerstone of the missions’ agricultural strategy, which changed the hydrology
of local watersheds. Peelo (2009:598–602) detailed the extensive methods of water conveyance employed at Mission San Antonio de Padua throughout its occupation ( Fig. 1). Such efforts modified the physical landscape at the same time SCH 900776 that
introduced plants and animals contributed to a changing biotic community ( Dartt-Newton and Erlandson, 2006). Archeological investigations at missions in Alta and Baja California amply demonstrate the degree to which agriculture was employed in the colony. Bone from domesticated species, in particular Bos taurus, dominates the faunal assemblages from all mission sites where scientific archeological research has been conducted. Analyses of floral remains from mission contexts indicate that domesticated
species similarly predominate, although some indigenous species continued to be exploited. That said, it should be noted that in other parts of North America – particularly among chiefdoms of the Atlantic coastline – indigenous populations retained a high level of autonomy in adapting introduced foods, goods, and beliefs into existing systems ( Thompson and Worth, 2010). Coastal Guale and Mocama, for example, demonstrated a continued reliance on aquatic and terrestrial resources – and other technological traditions – even Sorafenib as maize and other introduced cultigens were being sampled ( Reitz, 1993, Reitz et al., 2010, Ruhl, 1990, Ruhl, 1993 and Saunders, 1998). Anecdotally on at least one occasion in late spring, officers were sent at the request of padres at Mission San Pedro y San Pablo de Patale in northwest Florida to bring a group of Timucuan or Apalachee women back by force from a blackberry-picking foray to grind wheat at the mission ( Hann, 1986:99). In a similar fashion, padres at Mission Santa Barbara (Fig. 1) reported that when hollyleaf cherry (Prunus ilicifolia) ripened in the fall, “all the Christian Indians lived in scattered fashion in the mountains” ( Geiger, 1960:37).