The animals were maintained on a standard 12-h light/dark cycle (lights on at 7:00 a.m. and lights off at 7:00 p.m.), in a temperature-controlled environment (22 ± 2 °C), with access to water and chow ad libitum (cafeteria diet and/or standard rat chow). The experiments and procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care
and Use Committee (GPPG-HCPA protocol No. 09231) and were compliant with Brazilian guidelines involving the use of animals in research (Law No. 11,794). Vigorous attempts were made to minimize suffering and external sources of pain and discomfort. In addition, the minimum number of animals required to produce reliable scientific data were used. The rats were AZD5363 chemical structure acclimatized to their environment for 1 week before the start of the experiment. The animals were divided into two groups, a control group and a stress group. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups according to the chronic stress exposure and the type of diet provided (cafeteria diet or standard rat chow) as follows: standard chow (C, control and S, control plus restraint stress) and high-calorie food (HD, hypercaloric diet and SHD, hypercaloric diet plus restraint stress). The animals
were weighed weekly, and the food intake was recorded daily. The experiment was performed over 6 weeks. The animals were housed in groups of four animals per cage. The animals were subjected to a chronic restraint stress model  using a plastic tube (25 cm × 7 cm) fixed with adhesive
tape on the outside to avoid discomfort but limiting the movements of the animal; one end of the tube remained open to allow breathing this website Aspartate . The animals were exposed daily to 1 h of stress in the morning (between 9:00 and 12:00), 5 days a week for 6 weeks  (no stress on weekends). The animals were returned to their home cages immediately after exposure to the 1 h of stress. The control animals were maintained in their home cages throughout the experimental period. The apparatus was ventilated to avoid physical compression, hyperthermia and sweating. The standard rat chow (Nuvilab CR-1, NUVITAL®, Curitiba, PR, Brazil) provided an energy content of 2.93 kcal/g (information provided by the manufacturer), and the cafeteria diet totaled 4.186 kcal/g and 0.42 kcal/mL (calculated based on information provided by the manufacturer on the package label). The constituents of each diet are described in Table 1. The palatable high-calorie diet (cafeteria diet) was chosen because it mimics modern patterns of human food consumption and has been used successfully in experimental studies to induce obesity in lean animals  and . This diet was adapted from a diet known as the cafeteria diet or Western diet, previously described by Estadella et al. Foods included in the cafeteria diet were crackers, wafers, sausages, chips, condensed milk and soda.