The biological response occurs at different levels of biological organisation, from cellular to community level. Molecular techniques may offer a powerful approach to assess contaminant-induced changes in the genetic architecture of populations and species. Direct surveys of genetic adaptation can be very effective in the assessment the deleterious population-level effects of contaminant exposure, even though often they are difficult to accomplish with most field-exposed organisms. There is the need, therefore, to identify suitable target organisms for this kind of analysis. Other analyses include the response to contaminant exposure
at cellular and individual (biomarker) or community levels. The array of these analyses may offer an effective toolbox to assess marinas’ sustainability and monitor the effects of their impact on biological communities. On the basis of this knowledge, in recent years,
attention was paid check details to new non-toxic antifouling systems in order to find replacement solutions overcoming the biocide-based technology. New technologies based on substances that make the surface smoother have been developed in order to obtain a low degree of bioadhesion. Non-stick, fouling-release coatings are an attempt to prevent the adhesion of fouling organisms by providing a low-friction, ultra-smooth surface, on which organisms have great difficulties in settling (Yebra et al., 2004). Many studies carried out to elucidate the properties Docetaxel ic50 that a coating should possess SPTLC1 to counteract adhesion, pointed out that these properties are mainly possessed
by two families of materials: fluoropolymers and silicones (Brady and Singer, 2000). Fluoropolymers form non-porous, very low surface-free energy surfaces with good non-stick characteristics (Brady and Singer, 2000). Silicones, which are applied in thick (6 mm) layers, markedly improved the non-stick efficiency of fluoropolymers. Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based fouling-release coatings are the most widely used today due to their low surface energy, low microroughness, high elastic modulus and low glass transition temperature (Yebra et al., 2004). These surfaces present “moving targets” to the functional groups of marine adhesives, due to their conformationally mobile surfaces (Brady and Singer, 2000). The mechanical locking of biological glues is minimised and slippage and fouling-release are enhanced. Polysiloxanes substituted by fluorine can be considered attractive candidates for surfaces with low bioadhesion. In the Mediterranean many marinas are located in proximity to aquaculture plants or even included within the borders of marine reserves. The simultaneous presence of activities with contrasting effects on natural environment needs monitoring in order to minimize the impacts and to plan appropriate prevention measures.