The upper layer of water in the Sea of Marmara is replenished by this cold water from the Strait of Istanbul for approximately 3–4 months (Beşiktepe et al. 1994). The temperature
increase due to atmospheric heating in the upper http://www.selleckchem.com/products/pexidartinib-plx3397.html layer of the Sea of Marmara does not compensate for the temperature decrease caused by advection of the cold water into the upper layer. In the summer months, a cold intermediate layer identified as a tongue-shaped extension towards the south is generally observed in the Strait of Istanbul. Its temperature is about 11–12 ° C in the southern exit of the strait in June and July (Altıok et al. 2000). This cold layer is examined by the temperature transects through the strait shown in Figure 6 for July 1997–2000. The temperature transects in July can be a good explanatory plot for the transition of cold water through the strait, because the temperature difference is higher between the layers. In general, all the transects (Figure 6) show that there are three different water masses in the strait, as can be seen from the T-S diagrams. The thickness of CIW and its temperature change every year. In 1997, cold intermediate
water is observed along the strait below the warmer upper layer. On the south side of the strait selleck inhibitor (at station B2), the temperature of the upper layer decreases to 19 °C but is 24 °C on the north side (at station K0). Temperature transects show that the temperature of the upper layer suddenly decreases after the constricted part of the strait in the south. Owing to the geometry of the strait, the upper layer flows in three-dimensional circulations (Özsoy et al. 1998). This causes vertical mixing between the layers, and the temperature ZD1839 decreases. In 1998, the warmer
upper layer disappears along the strait. The upper depth limit of the 8 °C isotherm at station K0 is shallower than the one at station K2 (Figure 6). There is also a significant difference in temperature between these two stations at the surface (20.5 ° C at station K2 and 14.5 °C at station K0). This feature could be due to the anticyclonic eddy formation sometimes observed in the Black Sea exit of the strait (Sur et al. 1996). Eddy formation in the Black Sea exit of the strait generally causes a rise of CIW along the strait (Sur et al., 1994 and Sur and Ilyin, 1997). In this case, colder water entrains into the upper layer along the strait, as in July 1998. In 1999, the amount of CIW is too small, so that a thick warmer upper layer is observed along the strait. CIW is observed only as a thin layer in the northern part of the strait. As mentioned above, the thick (∼ 30 m) Danubian water layer most likely prevents the entrance of CIW into the strait. Due to the smaller amount of cold water in the strait, the temperature decrease of the surface layer is not fully observed after the contraction region in the south of the strait. But this is not an indication of less mixing in the region.