To address this, and thereby improve the GMR´s zoning, it will be necessary to implement a new rights-based management system, through amendments to the Galapagos’ legal framework as well as a practical mechanism approved by the PMB and IMA
(or Government Council). This task will require selecting, in a participatory way, a new portfolio of use rights  and  taking five key factors into consideration: (1) There is likely a need to re-allocate fishing licenses, in a manner that privileges the historical activity in the fishery and the performance of active fishers, as well as the distribution of the fishing effort according to the productive capacity of fishery resources, see more and the particular labour
needs of each fishery. To do so, there will need to be changes to the legal framework to provide mechanisms to re-allocate fishing licences, based on the number of active (full time and part time) fishers, and to make it legally possible to exclude those inactive license holders listed in the GNP’s fishing IDH inhibitor cancer registry. For example, in 2008, only 33% and 37% of the total 1101 license holders registered by the GNP participated actively in the sea cucumber and spiny lobster fisheries, respectively . The remainder are “inactive fishers”, and these license holders are typically recognized, by fishers themselves, as opportunistic individuals that only keep their fishing license to gain access to economic “alternatives” created by NGOs and the GNP. Drawing on the specific lessons learned in this case study of the shortcomings of the Galapagos fisheries management system, there emerges five more general insights potentially relevant as well within other contexts of ecosystem-based spatial management (EBSM), marine zoning and related management approaches worldwide: (1) The probability of success of EBSM is strongly reduced if it is adopted without a strategic and long term plan-based approach
and adequate funding. A serious and collaborative analysis, by Galapagos’ management authorities and local selleckchem stakeholders, of shortcomings experienced in GMR’s marine zoning and lessons learned as a result (as described throughout this paper) will contribute to improving the effectiveness of what could be one of the most important fisheries management measures of the GMR. The resulting insights, such as those described in this section, may well be useful further afield, as aspects of ecosystem-based spatial management are explored and implemented in fisheries around the world. Suggestions made by Jorge Ramírez were very useful in improving this paper. The authors acknowledge Angela M. Kuhn for her assistance with editing figures. Financial support is gratefully acknowledged from the World Wildlife Fund-Galapagos Program, the Leona M. and Harry B.