Unfortunately, these considerations and comparisons to STAR*D outcomes remain merely theoretical since there are no studies reporting a comparison of vilazodone with other active treatments or combinations of treatments. In preclinical animal models, vilazodone was suggestive of a potential rapid onset ADT [Page et al. 2002;
Bartoszyk et al. 1997] in that rodent vocalization, forced swim test, elevated maze, and predator-induced stress models appeared positive for antidepressant effects [Adamec et al. 2004; Treit et al. 1993; Treit, 1990; Pellow et al. 1985]. In vitro tests demonstrated that vilazodone has serotonin neurotransmission Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical enhancing potential, in part because of robust blockade of the SERT [Roberts et al. 2005] (Figure 1) and in part because of direct partial agonist actions on 5HT1A receptors (Figure 2). Animal model (rat) analysis of vilazodone supports the 5HT1A receptor partial agonism serotonergic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical property [Hughes et al. 2005; Heinrich et al. 2004]. In fact,
one such study revealed that vilazodone increased cortical 5HT levels more than an SSRI (fluoxetine) alone, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical which makes sense in that two serotonergic mechanisms should have additive cortical effects. Whether this means improved onset of efficacy or tolerability remains to be investigated in future trials [Page et al. 2002]. Figure 1. Vilazodone promotes dose-dependent serotonin transporter inhibition. 5-HT, serotonin. (Reproduced with permission Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from Dawson and Watson .) Figure 2. Vilazodone promotes dose-related binding and agonism on serotonin 1a (5HT1a) receptors. (Reproduced with permission from Dawson and Watson .) To further demonstrate how this theoretical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical serotonergic model might create human antidepressant effects, several dynamic steps must occur in the brain’s serotonin neurocircuitry to allow anti-depressant effects. First, the central nervous system has to be FTY720 molecular weight exposed
to an antidepressant capable of increasing 5HT levels robustly over several weeks [Stahl, Resveratrol 2008]. For example, SSRIs yield an increase in synaptic 5HT through SERT reuptake inhibition. This produces a desensitization and/or downregulation of presynaptic 5HT1A autoreceptors. Because the autoreceptors are now overstimulated, the 5HT neuron interprets this initially as toxic activity. As these autoreceptors become less effective because of overstimulation and desensitization, they offer less autoreceptor inhibition to the 5HT neuron and excess 5HT is released at the neuron terminals as a result. By directly agonizing the 5HT1A receptors in the central nervous system, vilazodone likely allows a faster, or greater, volume of 5HT1A receptor desensitization/downregulation upfront. This may lend more additive or synergistic 5HT effects than SSRI alone.