Until data are available, this preparation is not advised for this group. In the pre-HAART era, HIV-infected children responded poorly to HBV vaccine . Post-HAART, a study evaluating the response to revaccination after immune recovery on antiretroviral therapy (ART) demonstrated that those with complete virological suppression at the time of revaccination achieved protective vaccine responses , however protective
responses were achieved less frequently in children under 2 years of age . It is not currently known whether larger doses of vaccine, as are used for other groups with underlying disease, are more effective for HIV-infected children; some clinicians advocate using adult doses of vaccine to immunize HIV-infected children . Periodic measurement of HBV antibody status is also recommended, especially if there is likely to be a risk of ongoing exposure . HAV vaccine has a good safety profile, supporting its check details use in HIV-positive children, especially those with liver disease or HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection . A study of the standard two-dose schedule given 1 month apart showed low antibody titres and limited persistence in 235 HIV-infected children on effective HAART; a third dose was found to be safe and resulted in increased antibody titres . Another study demonstrated that all HIV-infected children, including those with HBV
coinfection, GSK2118436 price had adequate responses after two doses of HAV vaccine if given more than 6 months apart . Combined HAV and HBV vaccines are advantageous for HIV-infected children as they minimize the number of injections received. As for HBV, the adult preparation may be preferable but this strategy is not yet evidenced. Annually revised seasonal influenza vaccines contain killed viruses and so are safe for HIV-infected
children over 6 months of age; two doses are given in the first year of receiving the vaccine, and then a single dose is given annually thereafter, ideally before the influenza season begins. Evidence on efficacy in HIV-positive children on HAART is limited. A study comparing influenza vaccine responses in healthy versus HIV-infected children showed poor antibody responses in the latter, despite effective HAART . Thus, in addition Evodiamine to vaccinating all HIV-positive individuals against seasonal flu annually, also vaccinating household contacts reduces exposure to influenza in the family setting. At the time of writing, seasonal influenza vaccines appear to confer little or no cross-reactive antibody responses to 2009 H1N1 , so vaccination against pandemic influenza strain A/H1N1 is currently recommended for all HIV-infected patients. A recent study using an MF59-adjuvanted H1N1 influenza vaccine demonstrated that it was immunogenic, safe and well tolerated in HIV-infected children and adolescents .