We believe that we have not therefore had any change in the likelihood of case ascertainment. We believe this increase is real, not a procedural or structural artifact. Although other factors have changed over time (specific urologist participation, replanning, and a change from steel needles to plastic catheters), we believe the multivariable analysis and consideration of biologically plausible mechanisms point to the change to 19 Gy/2
as the most likely explanation for the change we have observed. Our dose schedule, constraints, and techniques are very similar to many other groups, and it is buy I-BET-762 possible that the stricture rate at higher doses per fraction is widely underappreciated because followup in many centers is not sufficient for the frequency to become manifested, or because as discussed, selleck compound the definitions and survey instruments do not reliably capture these stricture events. HDRB as a boost to EBRT is a proven technique for dose escalation in prostate cancer. However, there may be a higher risk of late urethral stricture depending on the dose-fractionation schedule used. The risk for a stricture, in this large series, was most strongly related to change of the fractionation schedule to 19 Gy/2 and consequentially a higher urethral D10. As it turns out, most patients diagnosed with a stricture only needed to undergo a single
procedure. Brachytherapy-related urethral strictures may be underreported and may not be easily routinely captured in toxicity data. Unlike most research reports, we hope our results are not easily reproduced, and are concerned they might be, inadvertently. Our department has changed
the fractionation to 18 Gy/3. The comprehensive data collection and excellent data management of Ms Karen Scott is greatly acknowledged. Ms Catherine Exoribonuclease Beaufort provided useful advise in the writing of the manuscript and is gratefully acknowledged. Dr Hindson was supported by the Peter Grant Hay Fund Fellowship unrestricted grant during this work. “
“High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) of the prostate involves the placement of a number of hollow needles into the prostate through which an HDR radioactive source can be introduced using an afterloading device. Before delivery of the treatment, needle placement with respect to the prostate and organs at risk (OARs) must be determined and, based on this, a suitable dose plan must be generated. Typically, prostate HDR-BT begins with the insertion of needles into the prostate under transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance with the patient in the dorsal lithotomy position. There are advantages to using TRUS for this, most notably that the prostate and urethra are well visualized in ultrasound (US) images making development of appropriate implant geometry relatively straightforward.