We suspected that MR signaling impacts migration of naïve T-helper cell counts through increasing expression of the adhesion molecule CD62L. This was not confirmed
as spironolactone did not change CD62L expression on any of the T cell subsets. This does not exclude that MR signaling might increase the affinity of CD62L for its ligand which was not tested here. Migration of T cells to lymph nodes also involves activation of the chemokine receptor CCR7 as well as the integrin LFA-1, changes in the expression or affinity Ivacaftor research buy of which represent alternative pathways that can mediate facilitating effects of MR signaling on T cell homing. It has recently been shown that aldosterone increases expression of the LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1 on endothelial cells resulting in an enhanced adhesion of leukocytes to the vessel walls (Caprio et al., 2008 and Krug et al., 2007). However, such effect per se would not sufficiently explain why the effect of MR blockade was specific for the naïve T cell subset, which is known to show only moderate LFA-1 expression in comparison to the other subpopulations ( Dimitrov et al., 2010). The mechanisms underlying this selectivity, hence, need to be clarified in further studies. In conclusion, we have shown that the blockade selleck compound of MR by spironolactone
enhances the number of circulating naïve T-helper cells during early sleep, whereas the prominent circadian decrease in T cell counts in the morning remained unaffected, which is in line with the view that this circadian decrease in T cells is solely driven by cortisol-induced GR activation. We propose that MR signaling during early nocturnal sleep, on top of these circadian changes, fine-tunes the redistribution and homing of naïve T helper Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) cells to lymph nodes, thereby eventually supporting the formation of immunological memory. All authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. We are grateful to Christiane Otten, Anja Otterbein and Alexander Tschulakow for technical assistance.
This work was supported by a grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinde (DFG), SFB 654 ‘Plasticity and Sleep’. “
“Stressors such as inflammatory cytokines have emerged as triggers of depressive behavior (Dantzer et al., 2008 and Maes et al., 2009). Microbe-borne molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Gibb et al., 2011) and the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein (Fu et al., 2011) induce cytokine-associated depressive-like behavior in mice. Furthermore, sustained increases in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and an enhanced activation of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) have been shown to be associated with depressive-like behavior ( Moreau et al., 2008).